Check out the May 2013 Kids Connections – a 16-page guide packed with summer activities for kids published by Grand Forks Public Schools.
Have you seen yet another story in the news about an adult using a computer to lure a minor? This story was published on www.grandforksherald.com recently. “Grand Forks Police have arrested a paraeducator at several middle schools on a charge of luring a minor by computer, police said today.” Click here to read the story.
You can help your teen use Facebook safely by explaining the importance of setting strict privacy controls, using smart judgement about what they choose to post, behaving appropriately and understanding that anything they put online can potentially be misused. Here are more tips on navigating this tricky territory.
1. Talk to your teens about controlling their information. Encourage them to be selective about what they share by customizing recipients of their posts. Activities on Facebook, including the applications teens use and games they play, can be viewed by others.
2. Use strict privacy settings. Review all of the options on your privacy settings page. Facebook’s default settings tend to keep information public until a user makes it private (although Facebook is a little stricter wiht minors’ accounts). “Friends Only” is a good choice for most items, but you can be more selective.
3. Pre-approve tags. Choose settings that allow you to see everything you’ve been tagged in (including photos) before the tag links to your page.
4. Use notification settings. You can tell Facebook that you want to be notified of any activity performed on your name, including photo tags.
5. Don’t post your location. Facebook lets users post their location on every post. Teens shouldn’t do this for safety and privacy reasons. Teens can also “tag” their friends’ location but you can prevent anyone from tagging your location in the How Tags Work section.
6. Set rules about what’s appropriate to post. No sexy photos, no drinking photos, no photos of them doing something that could hurt them in the future. Teens also need to be thoughtful about their status updates, wall posts and comments on friends’ posts. Remind them that once they post something, it’s out of their hands.
7. If in doubt, take it out. Use the “Remove Post” button to taken down risky posts.
8. Encourage teens to self-reflect before they self-reveal. Teens are very much in the moment and are likely to post something they didn’t really mean. Work with them on curbing the impulse. Teach them how to ask themselves why they’re posting something, who will be able to read is and whether it could be misunderstood or used against them later.
9. Watch out for the ads. There are tons of ads on Facebook and most major companies have profile pages. Marketers actively use Facebook to target advertising to your teen.
10. Create your own page. The best way to learn the in and out of Facebook is to create your own page. A great way to start talking to your teens about their Facebook experience is to ask them to help you create your own page.
11. “Friend” younger teens. If your kids are in middle school, it may be a sound policy to know what they’re reposting, since teens that age don’t necessarily understand that they’re creating a digital footprint. Keep in mind that kids can block you from seeing things, so chek in with them, too.
12. Talk to your high school-aged teens about whether they’re comfortable letting you “friend” them. Many will be. But if you are your teen’s friend, don’t fill his/her page with comments, and don’t friend his/her friends. Many parents say Facebook is the only way they know what’s going on in their teens’ life, so tread cautiously.
13. Choose your battles. You’ll see the good, the bad and the truly unfathomable. If you don’t want your teen to unfriend you, don’t ask them about every transgression. Keep it general.
14. Be a model friend. Remember that your teens can see what you post, too. Model good behavior for your teens and keep your own digital footprint clean.
15. Review Facebook’s Safety Center. Several FAQs, from general safety to safety for teens, provide detailed information on how to use Facebook safely.
To download a printable copy of these tips, click on the following link: http://bit.ly/SkUXd2
School violence, little heard of until the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colo., in which 12 students and a teacher were killed, is in the headlines again. Now the nation is dealing with mass shootings at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Conn.
As terrible and frightening as incidents like these are, they are rare. Although it may not seem that way, the rate of crime involving physical harm has been declining at U.S. schools since the early 1990s. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), fewer than 1 percent of all homicides among school-age children happen on school grounds or on the way to and from school. The vast majority of students will never experience violence at school or in college.
Still, it’s natural for kids and teens — no matter where they go to school — to worry about whether this type of incident may someday affect them. How can you help them deal with these fears? The experts at KidsHealth.org offer advice on talking with kids about these tragedies, and what they watch or hear about them, to help put frightening information into a more balanced context.
REACHING OUT TO YOUR KIDS It’s important for kids to feel like they can share their feelings and know that their fears and anxieties are understandable.
Rather than wait for your child to approach you, consider starting the conversation. You can ask what your child understands about these incidents and how they make him or her feel.
Share your own feelings too — during a tragedy, kids may look to adults for their reactions. It helps kids to know that they are not alone in their anxieties. Knowing that their parents have similar feelings will help kids legitimize their own.
At the same time, kids often need parents to help them feel safe. It may help to discuss in concrete terms what you have done and what the school is doing to help protect its students.
WHAT SCHOOLS ARE DOING Many schools are taking extra precautions to keep students safe.Some schools have focused on keeping weapons out by conducting random locker and bag checks, limiting entry and exit points at the school, and keeping the entryways under teacher supervision. Other schools use metal detectors, such as those used in airport security.
Lessons on conflict resolution have also been added to many schools’ courses to help prevent troubled students from resorting to violence. Peer counseling and active peer programs have also helped students become more aware of the signs that a fellow student may be becoming more troubled or violent.
Another thing that helps make schools safer is greater awareness of problems such as bullying and discrimination. Many schools now have programs to fight these problems, and teachers and administrators know more about protecting students from violence.
HOW KIDS PERCEIVE NEWS Of course, you are not your child’s only source of information about school shootings or other tragic events that receive media attention. Kids are likely to repeatedly encounter news stories or graphic images on television, radio or the Internet, and such reports can teach them to view the world as a confusing, threatening or unfriendly place.
Unlike movies or entertainment programs, news is real. But depending on your child’s age or maturity level, he or she may not yet understand the distinctions between fact and fantasy. By the time kids reach 7 or 8, however, what they watch on TV can seem all too real. For some children, the vividness of a sensational news story can be internalized and transformed into something that might happen to them. A child watching a news story about a school shooting might worry, “Could I be next? Could that happen to me?” TV has the effect of shrinking the world and bringing it into your own living room.
By concentrating on violent stories, TV news can also promote a “mean-world” syndrome, which can give kids a misrepresentation of what the world and society are actually like.
TALKING ABOUT THE NEWS To calm fears about the news, parents should be prepared to deliver what psychologists call “calm, unequivocal, but limited information.” This means delivering the truth, but in a way that fits the emotional level of your child. The key is to be truthful, but not go into more detail than your child is interested in or can handle.
Although it’s true that some things can’t be controlled, parents should still give kids the space to share their fears. Encourage them to talk openly about what scares them.
Older kids are less likely to accept an explanation at face value. Their budding skepticism about the news and how it’s produced and sold might mask anxieties they have about the stories covered. If an older child is bothered about a story, help him or her cope with these fears. An adult’s willingness to listen will send a powerful message.
ADDITIONAL TIPS FOR PARENTS Keeping an eye on what TV news kids watch can go a long way toward monitoring the content of what they hear and see about events like school shootings. Here are some additional tips:
- Recognize that news doesn’t have to be driven by disturbing pictures. Public television programs, newspapers or news magazines specifically designed for kids can be less sensational — and less upsetting — ways for them to get information.
- Discuss current events with your child on a regular basis. It’s important to help kids think through stories they hear about. Ask questions: What do you think about these events? How do you think these things happen? Such questions can encourage conversation about non-news topics as well.
- Put news stories in proper context. Showing that certain events are isolated or explaining how one event relates to another helps kids make better sense of what they hear.
- Watch the news with your child to filter stories together.
- Anticipate when guidance will be necessary and avoid shows that aren’t appropriate for your child’s age or level of development.
- If you’re uncomfortable with the content of the news or it’s inappropriate for your child’s age, turn it off.
For more health information for parents, kids and teens, visit kidshealth.org. KidsHealth is from the health experts of Nemours, a nonprofit devoted to children’s health. © 2012, The Nemours Foundation/KidsHealth
1. Choose a light-colored costume or add glow-in-the-dark tape to the front and back of the costume so your kids can be easily seen.
2. Don’t buy a costume unless it’s labeled “flame-retardant.” This means the material won’t burn.
3. Make sure wigs and beards don’t cover your kids’ eyes, noses, or mouths.
4. Don’t let your children wear masks – they can make it difficult for kids to see and breathe. Instead, use nontoxic face paint or makeup. Have younger children draw pictures of what they want to look like. Older kids will have fun putting the makeup on themselves.
5. Avoid oversized and high-heeled shoes that could cause kids to trip.
6. Avoid long or baggy skirts, pants, or shirtsleeves that could catch on something and cause falls.
7. Make sure that any props your kids carry, such as wands or swords, are flexible.
8. Accompany young children (under age 10) on their rounds. But make sure they know their home phone number, the cell phone numbers of parents and any other trusted adult who’s supervising, and how to call 911 in case they get lost.
9. For older kids who are trick-or-treating on their own, make sure you approve of the route they’ll be taking and know when they’ll be coming home. Also be sure that they: carry a cell phone, if possible go in a group and stay together, only go to houses with porch lights on, walk on sidewalks on lit streets (never walk through alleys or across lawns), never go into strangers’ homes or cars, cross the street at crosswalks and never assume that vehicles will stop.
10. Give kids flashlights with new batteries.
11. Limit trick-or-treating to your neighborhood and the homes of people you and your children know.
12. When your kids get home, check all treats to make sure they’re safely sealed and there are no signs of tampering, such as small pinholes, loose or torn packages, and packages that appear to have been taped or glued back together. Throw out loose candy, spoiled items, and any homemade treats that haven’t been made by someone you know.
13. Don’t allow young children to have hard candy or gum that could cause choking.
14. Make sure trick-or-treaters will be safe when visiting your home, too. Remove lawn decorations, sprinklers, toys, bicycles, wet leaves, or anything that might obstruct your walkway. Provide a well-lit outside entrance to your home. Keep family pets away from trick-or-treaters, even if they seem harmless to you.
Oct. 8-13 is Fire Prevention Week. Here’s a page on fire safety you can print and share with younger students. It is from the KRP NIE tab, “Playing it Safe” distributed by the NIE Institute.
For more information on Fire Prevention Safety visit: http://complianceandsafety.com/safety-tips/fire-safety-tips.php
The Grand Forks Fire Department said Wednesday it will be working with area schools to spread a message of fire safety during Fire Prevention Week Oct. 8 to 13.
First, second and third graders citywide will meet with firefighters. Fire trucks are scheduled to visit with kindergarten classes and Head Start programs.
To cap off the week, the Fire Department will hold an open house 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. Oct. 13 at the Central Fire Station at 1124 DeMers Ave in Grand Forks. There will be safety learning activities and demonstrations for all ages.
Download the page by clicking on the following link: http://legacy.grandforksherald.com/pdfs/FIRE%20SAFETY%20PAGEr.pdf
Note: if you are going to print this pdf, make sure to adjust your print setting to fit on page. The pdf is bigger than 8.5 x 11 (normal print size.)
Here’s some information on how to stay safe in the sun.
Take Steps to Protect Your Skin
By Karalee Miller, McClatchy Newspapers
Sunny days are great for kicking back, playing in the pool or hitting up the local park, but keep in mind how dangerous the sun can be. Now, we know this isn’t the first time you’ve heard this, and we’re pretty positive it won’t be the last. It bears repeating, though, because the innocent-looking sun can be so harmful to your health.
Skin cancer is a big risk and its the most common of all cancers, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimates there will be more than 10,000 deaths from skin cancer this year. So before you cannonball into the pool, here are some good-to-know facts:
WHAT ARE SOME OF THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF THE SUN?
Overexposure to the sun’s ultraviolet rays can lead to more than just a sunburn. (Besides, with all the peeling and pain, isn’t a sunburn alone enough reason to slather on the unscreen?) If it’s not, realize that in addition to cancer, excess UV rays can cause skin cancer, eye damage, immune-system suppression and premature aging. For children, the risk is high, as about 23 percent of lifetime sun exposure occurs before the age of 18.
WHAT ARE THE MAJOR KINDS OF SKIN CANCER?
Most skin cancers are classified as nonmelanoma, which typically occurs in cells located at he base of the outer layer of the skin. Most nonmelanoma skin cancers develop on the face, ears, lips and backs of hands. They rarely spread to other areas of the body. Most of the ore than 1 million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer diagnosed annually in the United States are considered sun-related.
Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the melanocytes cells that produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin. Melanin helps protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of the sun. Melanoma is almost always curable when it is detected in its early stages. However, it is far more dangerous than other skin cancers, and it causes the majority of skin-cancer deaths. It will account for more than 62,000 cases of skin cancer this year.
HOW CAN I PROTECT MYSELF FROM THE SUN?
Let’s hope you’re not too freaked out to play outdoors this summer. As long as you practice sun safety, feel free to play, swim, ride bikes, whatever you like. There are, however, several ways to be safe. Here are some tips from the American Cancer Society:
1. Try to stay out of the sun from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. During that time when the sun’s rays can be most intense play in the shade. Implement the shadow rule: If your shadow is shorter than you, the sun’s rays are at their strongest.
2. Wear clothes made of tightly woven fabrics to protect your skin.
3. Use a sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher. Keep it on hand so you can reapply it throughout the day.
4. Wear sunglasses with 99 percent to 100 percent UV absorption.
5. Wear a hat with at least a 2- to 3-inch brim all around. This is ideal because it protects areas such as the ears, eyes, forehead, nose, and scalp that are often exposed to intense sun.
SOURCES: The National Safety Council; American Cancer Society
Have you read the article “Officials alarmed by ‘bad batch’ of drugs in Grand Forks” by Stephen Lee in the June 19 issue of the Grand Forks Herald? After two teen-aged males died apparently from overdosing on synthetic drugs, federal, state and local law enforcement officials held an emergency meeting Tuesday in Grand Forks.
What can parents? Here is some helpful information from an NIE tab called Stay Smart, Don’t Start – the Truth About Drugs and Alcohol. The tab was produced by the Washington Times Newspapers in Education Department and distributed by the NIE Institute. I have posted below an article from the tab called Parents: The Biggest Influence.
Parents: The Biggest Influence
Not Your Kids? Here’s How to Make Sure! Could you be the parent of a drug abuser? If your immediate reaction is “Not my kid!” you’ve got company. Even kids who are not guilty of any wrongdoing become protective of their privacy during adolescence, and their parents expect this part of growing up. However, kids are masters at hiding what they don’t want you to see. It can take some detective work to be sure your children aren’t abusing drugs or alcohol.
You may have secretly searched his or her room and been relieved not to find any drug paraphernalia. You’ve monitored your child’s My Space or You-Tube or Facebook site and haven’t found any alarming pictures or posts? That could be a good sign. But prescription medications have now become the drug of choice for many teens. Approximately one in five teenagers has reported abusing a prescription medicine, and one in 10 has reported having abused cough medicine. When they combine either with alcohol, the game gets more dangerous.
Here are some tips and suggestions for protection and detection:
•Educate yourself. Learn the slang terms that kids use to describe cough medicine abuse, like Dex, Robo and Triple-C.
•Safeguard medicines at home. Monitor your medicine cabinet and note which products you have and how many.
•Properly throw away medicine that you are no longer using in the trash. It is not wise to keep medicine, such as pain medicines, around for when you might need them in another instance. In the majority of those situations, medicine will have expired or is not the right medicine for your specific injury or ailment. It is always best to consult with your healthcare provider and stay away from self-diagnosing or self-prescribing.
•Communicate with your teen. Talk to your teens about all types of drug abuse, including prescription drug and cough medicine abuse. Studies have shown that kids whose parents discuss the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse with them are 50% less likely to use either.
•Teach your kids to respect medicines. Remind your children that it is never safe to abuse prescription and OTC medicines, use someone else’s medications, and it is not OK to do it even just once. Young people are dying or becoming seriously dependent on a variety of drugs.
•Monitor your teens’ Internet usage. Many websites promote medicine abuse, either by providing instructions, abuser communication groups or videos. Always be aware of what your teenagers are doing online.
•Recognize the signs of medicine abuse. The warning signs include missing or empty bottles or packages of prescription or over-the-counter medicines and changes in behavior. If your teen takes medications, you should be in control and dole out the necessary amount.
•Get to know your child’s friends and their parents. Listen carefully when your child talks to his or her friends. If you have a gut instinct that a new friend is less than trustworthy, be extra vigilant.
•Double check. As an extra check, have your child call you during the party at a prearranged time—for example, about four hours after the party begins. If you get the “None of the other kids have to do that” response, insist that they can’t go to the party unless they agree to call. Let them know that if you don’t hear from them, you will be calling the house yourself. If they know they will be talking to you at some point during the evening, they may be less likely to drink or take drugs for fear you will be able to “tell.”
•Wait up (or wake up) when your child comes home in the evening. Knowing you’ll be there for “check in” can be a great deterrent to unwise behavior. Have a brief conversation about how the evening went. Watch for signs of odd or unexplained behavior such as slurred speech, unsteady walk or dizziness, sweating, nausea, dilated pupils, drowsiness, vomiting, and numbness of extremities.
•Be a good role model. Don’t abuse drugs or alcohol yourself.
•Most important: TALK. You have undoubtedly seen television and magazine ads advising you to talk to your kids about drugs. Studies have shown that kids whose parents discuss the dangers of drug and alcohol abuse with them are 50% less likely to use either. For suggestions on how to do this, see “How to Talk to Your Kids: Teachable Moments” that follows.
While it would be nice if parents could trust their teenagers 100%, it’s a bit unrealistic to do so. Peer pressure is the driving force of much adolescent behavior. Most kids want to feel that they’re part of the group, and it can be hard not to cave in to fit in. While these steps are not easy or pleasant, helping your child make drug- and alcohol-free choices is well worth the effort. Years down the road, they will thank you for doing the right thing today.
How to Talk to Your Kids: Teachable Moments
Notice the word “moments” in the title? That’s because a one-time conversation is not likely to be effective. Just as occasions arise to reinforce math or reading skills, there are particularly good opportunities to talk about drugs and alcohol.
When you’re driving with your teen, you’ve got a captive audience. An activity you enjoy together, whether it’s fishing or jogging, sets a positive tone for a talk. You might kick it off with a remark about a drug or alcohol related accident or other incident, or a conversation you had with friends about their child’s addiction problems and how difficult it has been for the family.
Newspapers and television also offer teachable moments. Nearly every day there is a story about a drunk driver who has been arrested or an incident related to drugs or alcohol. Television documentaries about drugs present another teachable moment. Watch them together, and discuss them afterwards. Ask your kids questions that require more than a one word answer. For example, ask “Why do you suppose the boy in that story took all those pills?” instead of “Shouldn’t he have known better?”
Remember, whenever and wherever your talks, they should be two-way conversations, not a lecture. Make your family position on drugs and alcohol clear, but show plenty of love and concern—not anger or suspicion. Try for an “open forum” feeling, where everyone feels free to express their opinions and feelings.
When should you have your first talk with your teen? As soon as you can. Be on the lookout for the first teachable moment. Then look for another one. And another. Keep talking.
Playing It Safe is a newspapers in education tab that helps students learn the dos & don’ts of personal safety in a fun, entertaining format. Topics and titles include: In Case of Emergency, Fire, Testing the Water, Let’s go for a Bike Ride, Out for a Walk, Poison Beware, On the Playground, Hello! Who’s Calling, Lost and Found and Don’t Talk to Strangers. This tab was produced by KRP and distributed by the NIE Institute.
Download by clicking on the following link: http://legacy.grandforksherald.com/pdfs/Playing_it_Safe.pdf
Note: if you are going to print this pdf, make sure to adjust your print setting to “fit on page”. The pdf is bigger than 8.5 x 11 (normal print size.)
I received the monthly newsletter recently from Central High School in Grand Forks. There was a great page with tips for parents and teens on Facebook and Internet safety from the Grand Forks Youth Commission. I like this because it was created by local students. There is also a list of of useful links at the end of the article. Good job to the students of the Grand Forks Youth Commission for putting this together!
The Grand Forks Youth Commission exists to identify, promote, improve, increase and provide services and programs for young people in Grand Forks. We invite you to read through the following and learn a little more about internet safety and how to use social networking sites.
The Grand Forks Youth Commission cares. Help us make the internet a safer and kinder place for you and your children.
Tips for parents and teens:
- Create your own page. The best way to learn the ins and outs of Facebook is to create your own page. A great way to start talking to your teens about their Facebook experience is to ask them to help you create your own page.
- Control your information: Be selective about what you share by customizing the recipients of your posts. Activities on Facebook can be viewed by others.
- Use strict privacy settings: Review your privacy settings page. Facebook defaults privacy settings to public until a user makes it private.
- Pre-approve tags: Choose the settings that allow you to see everything you’ve been tagged in to accept or deny the tag before it goes on your page.
- Don’t post your location. You should do this for safety and privacy reasons. You can prevent people from tagging you at a location in the How Tags Work section.
- Set rules about what’s appropriate to post. No suggestive photos, no photos of them doing anything illegal, and no photos of them doing something that they could regret in the future. Be thoughtful about status updates, wall posts, and comments. Remember that once they post something, it’s out of their hands. Future employers may have access to your page.
- If in doubt, take it out. Use the “Remove Post” button to take down risky posts.
- Self-reflect before you self-reveal: Remember to think about who will be seeing your posts and comments before you post them. You may need time to cool off and think about the situation.
- “Friend” younger teens. Some teens don’t understand they’re creating a digital footprint. Help them understand how to use it safely. Keep in mind that kids can block you from seeing things so check in with them too.
- Talk to your high school teens about whether they’re comfortable letting you “friend” them: Many will be. But if you are your teen’s friend, don’t fill their page with comments, and don’t “friend” his/her friends. Many parents say Facebook is the only way they know what’s going on in their teens’ life, so tread cautiously.
- Choose your battles: You’ll see the good, the bad, and the truly unfathomable. If you don’t want your teens to unfriend you, don’t ask them about every transgression. Keep it general.
We ask that you and your teens review this page to reach a greater understanding of social networking sites and how to run them safely. The internet is a very public place and you create a digital footprint with whatever you do. By using these simple tips you will generate a positive footprint for you and your teens to model theirs after. We have included some extra websites to help you further understand social networking, its effects, and how to run it privately.
Balancing Screen Time: http://www.ikeepsafe.org/category/balancing-screen-time/
Tips for parents about Facebook: http://www.commonsensemedia.org/advice-for-parents/facebook-parents
How to prevent cyberbullying of your child: http://www.ikeepsafe.org/parenting/changing-tides-cyberbullying-prevention/
How to get a handle on Facebook privacy settings: http://www.commonsensemedia.org/advice-for-parents/how-get-handle-facebooks-privacy-settings
Digital Influence/Popularity: http://www.ikeepsafe.org/digital-citizenship-2/digital-popularity/
Facebook Newsletter for Parents: http://www.facebookforparents.org/newsletter.html
Digital Footprint: http://cnettv.cnet.com/sizing-your-digital-footprint/9742-1_53-50111778.html
TO DOWNLOAD THIS INFORMATION CLICK ON THE FOLLOWING LINK: http://legacy.grandforksherald.com/pdfs/FACEBOOK%20AND%20INTERNET%20SAFETY%20FROM%20GF%20YOUTH%20COMMISSION.pdf
Note about the Grand Forks Youth Commission – The Youth Commission is a group of 24 young people between the ages of 14 and 18 who advise the Mayor’s Cabinet on Young People and advocate to the community on behalf of youth. The Youth Commission is a diverse group of youth representing many perspectives, ages and backgrounds. The Commission is an important way for youth to be actively involved in decisions of community entities that affect youth. Youth Commissioners develop leadership skills, encourage other young people to get involved, and voice the concerns and needs of our young people. For more information on the Grand Forks Youth Commission visit: http://www.grandforksgov.com/gfgov/home.nsf/Pages/Youth+Commission
Check out this related story in Friday’s Grand Forks Herald SOCIAL MEDIA: Freedom to tweet? http://www.grandforksherald.com/event/article/id/234344/
To tie in with Red Ribbon Week, I’d like to share with you a Newspapers in Education tab which was included with Grand Forks Herald classroom copies, GF/EGF newsstand and home delivery copies today (Oct. 27). The tab was sponsored by David Frisch of the GFAFB Demand Reduction Program. David is also a member of the Grand Forks Substance Abuse Prevention Coalition. What a great local resource we have in the area!
Click on the following link to download the Stay Smart, Don’t Start tab: http://legacy.grandforksherald.com/pdfs/Stay%20Smart2011.pdf
Note: if you are going to print this pdf, make sure to adjust your print setting to fit on page. The pdf is bigger than 8.5 x 11 (normal print size.)